Phased array (PAUT)
Phased array ultrasonics is an advanced method of ultrasonic testing which is commonly used in industrial non destructive testing. The beam from a phased array probe can be focused and swept electronically without moving the probe. The beam is controllable because a phased array probe is made up of multiple small elements, each of which can be pulsed individually at a computer-calculated timing and is generally regarded as a more reliable method of ultrasonic testing.
Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD)
Time-of-flight diffraction method of ultrasonic testing is a sensitive and accurate method for the non destructive testing of welds for defects. Measuring the amplitude of reflected signal is a relatively unreliable method of sizing defects because the amplitude strongly depends on the orientation of the crack. Instead of amplitude, TOFD uses the time of flight of an ultrasonic pulse to determine the position and size of a reflector.
Vacuum box inspection
Vacuum box inspection is an integral part of a tank inspection process as recommended by API and other international standards to establish the condition of a tank bottom plate weld or shell to bottom plate weld. A vacuum is generated by the use of an electric vacuum pump or by use of an integrated Air Vacuum Generator (AVG) and external compressor which sucks air though any through-wall defects. A soapy product covers the surface and defects are revealed as bubbles due to the escape of air from the defect.
Rope access (RA)
Rope access is a form of work positioning, initially developed from techniques used in climbing and caving, which applies practical ropework to allow workers to access difficult-to-reach locations without the use of scaffolding, cradles or an aerial work platform. Rope access technicians descend, ascend, and traverse ropes for access and work while suspended by their harness. Sometimes a work seat may be used. The support of the rope is intended to eliminate the likelihood of a fall altogether, but a back-up fall arrest system is used in case of the unlikely failure of the primary means of support. This redundancy system is usually achieved by using two ropes – a working line and a safety line.
Ultrasonic testing (UT)
Very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz are projected into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. Also commonly used to determine the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor corrosion.
Magnetic Particle testing (MT)
Magnetic Particle Inspection is a process for detecting surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. This process is particularly sensitive to detecting fine cracks.
Penetrant testing (PT)
Is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials.
Visual testing (VT)
Visual Inspection is one of the most widely used NDT methods for the detection of discontinuities before they cause major problems, e.g. poor welding, surface defects, corrosion pits, general condition, degradation, blockages and foreign materials.